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Writing Lab Reports&Scientific Papers

2011-01-03 12:23 |  来源:咕噜英语 |  人气: | 

What lab reports and scientific papers do:

Persuade others to accept or reject hypotheses by presenting data and interpretations

Detail data, procedures, and outcomes for future researchers

Become part of the accepted body of scientific knowledge when published unless later disproved

Provide an archival record for reference and document a current situation for future comparison

Format

Title:

Reflect the factual content with less than ten words in a straightforward manner

Use keywords researchers and search engines on the Internet will recognize

Abstract:

Summarize in a concise paragraph the purpose of the report, data presented, and major conclusions in about 100 - 200 words.

Introduction:

Define the subject of the report: "Why was this study performed?"

Provide background and relevant studies: "What knowledge already exists about this subject?"

Outline scientific purpose(s) and/or objective(s): "What are the specific hypotheses and the experimental design for investigation?"

Materials and methods:

List materials used, how were they used, and where and when was the work done (especially important in field studies)

Describe special pieces of equipment and the general theory of the analyses or assays used

Provide enough detail for the reader to understand the experiment without overwhelming him/her. When procedures from a lab book or another report are followed exactly, simply cite the work and note that details can be found there.

Results

Concentrate on general trends and differences and not on trivial details.

Summarize the data from the experiments without discussing their implications

Organize data into tables, figures, graphs, photographs, etc. Data in a table should not be duplicated in a graph or figure

Title all figures and tables; include a legend explaining symbols, abbreviations, or special methods

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